Two interrelated movements, programmed instruction
and teaching machines, attempt to increase learning efficiency through
emphasizing the learner's active role, use of small successive steps,
immediate feed-back to student response, and allowing the student
to proceed at his (sic) own pace.
Programmed instruction is a planned sequence of experiences leading
to the student's mastery of a topic of study. Tools for presenting
the planned sequence of experiences varied from paper and pencil
type to teaching machines.
Hefzallah, I.M., Forerunners to Computers in
Education, in The New Learning and Telecommunications Technologies:
Their Potential Applications In Education, I.M. Hefzallah, Editor.
1990, Charles C Thomas: Springfield. p. 59 - 70.
Programmed learning involves the identification
of precise behavioural learning objectives, the step by step sequencing
of tasks in order to achieve these objectives with each step measured
by appropriate tests of attainment. Such an approach emphasizes
teacher control over the objectives, tasks and sequence of learning
and a tight structuring of these. Programmed learning is based on
behaviorist theories of learning which aims to shape behaviour into
predetermined patterns by strengthening stimulus-response bonds.
Entwistle, N., Styles in Learning and Teaching:
An Integrated Outline of Educational Psychology for Students, Teachers
and Lecturers. 1994, London: David Fulton Publishers, p. 226.
Instruction in which learners progress
at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical
devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning
at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement.
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